Online paper submission »

Cessation of craniofacial growth and the timing of implant placement in the esthetic zone – a systematic review

Kliknij autora aby wyszukać wszystkie publikowane przez niego artykuły:
Paweł D. Fudalej, Piotr S. Fudalej

1/2017/XLV s. 57–64
Click to return to issue contents
Digital version of article (in PDF file)


Fraza do cytowania: Fudalej P.D., Fudalej P.S. Cessation of craniofacial growth and the timing of implant placement in the esthetic zone – a systematic review. Dental Forum. 2017;XLV(1):57–64. DOI:

Aim. Dental implants behave like ankylosed teeth, i.e. they do not adapt to remodelling of the bone and the eruption of adjacent teeth. Thus, they should be placed once craniofacial growth is complete. Several studies demonstrated that craniofacial growth might continue into adulthood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to systematically review the findings of publications quantifying craniofacial growth after puberty. Material and methods. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for longitudinal studies in which the facial growth in males > 17 years old and females > 16 years old was assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Two researchers performed the search independently of each other. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to a grading system developed by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care. Results. Fourteen studies were selected. The maximum increase of anterior facial height (Nasion-Menton distance) in males was 4.3 mm. This change occurred over a period of 30 years (from 17 to 47 years of age; 0.14 mm per year). The maximum increase of the Nasion-Menton distance in females was 4.5 mm (0.15 mm per year). The maximum increase of lower anterior facial height (ANS-Menton) in males was 2.5 mm (0.08 mm per year). The maximum increase of ANS‑Menton in females was 3.2 mm (0.1 mm per year). Conclusions. Based on the findings we conclude the following: (1) the growth of the craniofacial skeleton after 17 years of age in males and 16 years of age in females is relatively small and should have a limited effect on the long-term esthetics of implant-crowns; (2) caution is recommended when considering implantation in patients with a gingival display upon smiling and those having inadequate occlusal contacts between maxillary and mandibular teeth.

Key words: esthetic zone, craniofacial growth, intraosseous implants, bone remodelling.

Copyright © 1989–2023 Dental Forum. All rights reserved.